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Joel, that cartridge isn't the easiest to setup, so check with the alignment with the protractor that comes with the turntable.
Also, if you're playing new vinyl, particularly the re-mastered stuff, it is to my ears on the bright and thin side. If you can find a secondhand copy of Love over Gold, it's one of the best-produced LPs of all time and also one that should comfortably out-perform the CD. The original Sade and Tracy Chapman LPs are also good to use references.
Yes, you do have a base-level cartridge, especially given that pre-amp, but it should be a good match for the arm. Has it been used recently? As others have suggested, it takes a while for things to loosen up with cartridges.
Defeating the object, a direct master from the original master tapes perhaps but not digitally remastered also if i believe right Joel you dont have that many records to play around with yet so there will be a few duff sounding ones like many CD's.
My own recent experience - i bought a good Rega Planar 2 / Audio Technica AT95E for £90 as i wanted to try out vinyl again and picked up a couple of new and a few old vinyl to try.
Using the Arcam phono stage i have to say it was very very good indeed - great sound which was actually very similar to the Arcam CD to be honest but not quite as good. In my case it wasnt lacking richness or bass or lushness at all but the CD was delivering a lot more detail and a clearer presentation. Now that said this is no surprise to me given the original price of the CD and the Rega.
So whilst the CD is better overall - in terms of value the Rega is amazing and if i was starting from scratch would be seriously happy with it over a budget CD player. In my case i do like the turntable experience as an alternative and can get some very cheap vinyl locally to take a chance on some unheard albums.
The turntable is going to have to work hard to beat an Arcam 192 given the quality of the CD but also i wouldnt have thought a 'weedy' sound is likely from vinyl unless the phono presention is of a very different nature.